The Island is the most important location in LOST, and has been the principal location for major events that have occurred.
Pre-DHARMA EditLittle is known of the island's history prior to the arrival of The DHARMA Initiative, however, it is known that there is a Four-Toed Statue along the coastline, as well the ruins which contain a large stone column. It is unknown who constructed these objects.
Sometime between the construction of the ancient ruins and the arrival of Richard, a young pregnant woman named Claudia washed ashore. It is estimated based on her name and appearance that the time period was somewhere around the time of the Roman Empire. She was rescued by a mysterious woman who appeared to have originated on the island, not long after Claudia began to give birth to her son whom she named Jacob. To her and the mysterious womans surprise, she was actually bearing twins and gave birth to her second son whom she hadn't picked a name for because he was unexpected, this son would later become The Man in Black. Following the twins delivery, the mysterious woman bludgeoned Claudia to death with a rock and adopted the boys as her own, becoming their Mother.
As the boys grew up, the man in black became discontent with the status quo and wished to leave the island, though their mother would not allow this to be so saying that nothing existed beyond the ocean. When the boys reached their teen years she escorted them to a secret cavern where a spring flowed from. Light emanated from inside the cavern, a place their mother called "The Source", a secret that one of them would be chosen to protect from ever being discovered, else the light be extinguished and the world subsequently ends. Jacob and his brother encounter another group of people whom they had no prior knowledge of, the man in black's curiosity eventually gets the better of him and years later he abandons Jacob and their mother to join them—having been promised a means to leave the island. Jacob discovers that his brother has been digging to try to find his own way back to the source, and has constructed a Wheel which he intends to integrate with the source in order to bring out his exodus of the island. Jacob is compelled to inform their mother who goes to see for herself and eventually knocks the man in black unconscious, then buries the cavern that housed the wheel and proceeds to slaughter all of his fellow villagers. He retaliates by murdering their mother. When Jacob sees this he also retaliates, beating his brother and then dragging him to the source where he sends him floating downstream. After a few moments the Smoke Monster emerges and shoots off into the island. Jacob eventually finds his brother dead, slumped over a boulder in the creek. For all intents and purposes, Jacob becomes a native inhabitant of the island.
Centuries later, the first known visitors to the island were the crew of the Black Rock, which was captained by Magnus Hanso, and arrived on the island in 1881. The ship contained both a crew of sailors, as well as slaves. Magnus Hanso at some point passed away, and his remains are buried somewhere on the island.
"Adam" and "Eve" were laid to rest in the caves by Jacob millenia ago. There are a group of natives on the island, one of which being Richard Alpert, that still exists in the present day on the island. Benjamin Linus described the group to John Locke as "the island's original inhabitants". It is unknown, however, if these "original inhabitants" are in fact the same people as Richard Alpert's group.
The DHARMA Initiative EditIn the 1970s, the Hanso Foundation provided funding to the DHARMA Initiative's founders Gerald and Karen DeGroot. They constructed several stations on the island which were used for scientific research. As well, a living community known as the Barracks was built and encircled by a sonar fence. The island has "subterranean conduits" built on the island, and electrical power is supplied from an unknown source, as well a wide variety of communication tools.
Ben states that God "can't see this island any better than the rest of the world can", meaning that it is incredibly difficult to locate. The DHARMA Initiative constructed a sonar beacon underwater which would emit a signal to assist submarines back to the island.
The members of the DHARMA Initiative were eventually betrayed by Ben, and "purged" by Richard Alpert and his inhabitants, who were known to DHARMA as "The Hostiles"
Post-DHARMA EditIn 1988, Danielle Rousseau and her Science Team were drawn to the island by a broadcast which was repeating The Numbers on a loop. Danielle claims that she had never seen another person on the island and that she has only heard them whispering. Danielle and her crew dug out a temporary shelter, while they searched for the radio tower. Danielle eventually murdered her entire team after they contracted a sickness. Her child was kidnapped by the "Others", as she came to call them, leaving her alone.
Sometime around July, 2004, assuming that Ben's portrayal of Henry Gale was accurate, the balloon crashed onto the island. He was later found buried in the jungle, with his neck broken, and his identification still on him.
On September 22, 2004, Oceanic Flight 815 crashed onto the island with 70+ survivors. These survivors constructed several campsites along the coast and the beach. They also discovered several of the DHARMA Initiative's stations.
On December 17, 2004, Naomi parachuted out of a crashing helicopter and landed on the island. She was discovered by Desmond, Charlie, Hurley and Jin. The group finds the parachutist, Desmond removes the mask, to reveal Naomi, who recognizes Desmond. Naomi claims that she was hired by Penny Widmore to find Desmond, and carried a picture of him along in her pack. However, Ben informs Jack that she is not who she says she is, and that she is a representative of some people who have been trying to find the island, and that if she successfully contacts her boat every single living person on this Island will be killed. Contact is made with the ship, and Jack speaks with Minkowski and requests for them to lock onto their location.