The colors black and white, which traditionally reflect opposition or dualism (i.e. yin and yang), appear frequently throughout the series. Their dichotomy is laid out in the show's pilot episode — Locke explains backgammon to Walt by holding up one black and one white piece, saying, "Two players, two sides — one is light, one is dark."
The colors are often used to represent ambiguous or contradictory natures within a character's own personality. In the opening sequence of "Raised By Another," Locke appears as an ominous image in Claire's nightmare about her unborn child, with one eyeball black and the other white. In "Deus Ex Machina," the glasses that Sawyer wears to accommodate his hyperopia are created from the frames of two different pairs of glasses: one side white, the other black.
On other occasions, the colors represent opposition between individuals. In the closing scene of "Collision," Jack and Ana-Lucia, ostensibly leaders of their respective factions, face each other with Jack wearing white and Ana Lucia wearing black; in "The Long Con," Jack and Locke, immediately following an argument between the two, are seen wearing opposing white and black shirts. In virtually all of the last few episodes in the second season, the dueling philosophies of Locke and Mr. Eko are presented by showing how one of them is white (Locke), and one is black (Eko).
However, on other occasions, the colors are featured in unexpected or as-of-yet unexplained ways — such as in "House of the Rising Sun," when Jack finds a pouch containing one white stone and one black stone on a pair of mummified corpses.
The Title screen at the end of 'The incident' is changed from white on black to black on white. Also at the beginning of this episdode Jacob wears white clothes and his enemy wears black.
In the episode The Substitute, Jacob's Rival describes how the scales with a black and white rock on either side are a 'private joke'. He then casts the white rock into the ocean, most likely to signify the death of Jacob (reiterating the idea that Jacob is represented by white, whilst his rival is black)
- There are white polar bears on the island. - ("Pilot - Part 2")
- The title of Jack's first flashback episode is "White Rabbit".
- Jack finds two polished stones one black, one white, while exploring the caves in "House of The Rising Sun ".
- While recovering in the hospital, the nurse asks Michael "What's black, white and red over", to respond with a "penguin with a sunburn". - ("Special")
- Susan Lloyd and Brian Porter were a married couple who were black and white. - ("Special")
- There is a slave ship on the island called The Black Rock. - ("Exodus - Part 1")
- The survivors see a plume of black smoke on the horizon. - ("Exodus - Part 1")
- The Swan Station's countdown timer featured black and white numbers. - ("Man of Science, Man of Faith")
- Bernard and Rose were also a black and white married couple. - ("Collision")
- Kate finds a black horse on the island. - ("What Kate Did")
- Eko is attacked by a polar bear that is white, and is later killed by "The Monster" which is a black cloud of smoke. - ("Further Instructions") and ("The Cost of Living")
- Ben presents a white bunny to Sawyer which has the number eight printed in black on it's back. - ("Every Man for Himself")
- The Dharma Initiative logo is black and white
- Black and white rocks on a scale in Jacob's cave - ("The Substitute")
- Jacob sends a white rock to his rival, through Richard Alpert- (Ab Aeterno")